Category Archives: General

CLI hotkey and navigation guide

I have been meaning to write this post for quite a while now but have always managed to forget.  I have been piecing together useful terminal shortcuts, commands and productivity tools since I started using Linux back in the day.  If you spend any amount of time in the terminal you should hopefully know about some of these tricks already but more importantly, if you’re like me, are always looking for ways to improve the efficiency of your bash workflow and making your life easier.

There are a few things that I would quickly like to note.  If you use tmux as your CLI session manager you may not be able to use some of the mentioned hotkeys to get around by default if you don’t have some settings turned on in your configuration file.

You can take a look at my custom .tmux.conf file if you’re interested in screen style bindings plus configuration for hotkeys.  If you simply want to add the option that turns on the correct hotkey bindings for your terminal, add this line to your ~/.tmux.conf file

set-window-option -g xterm-keys on

Also, if you are a Mac user, and don’t already know about it, I highly recommend checking out iTerm2.  Coming primarily from a Linux background the hotkey bindings in Mac OS X are a little bit different than what I am used to and were initially a challenge for me to get accustomed to.  The transition for me took a little bit but iTerm has definitely helped me out immensely, as well as a few other ticks learned along the way.  I really haven’t dug through all the options in iTerm but there are a huge number of options and customizations that can made.

The only thing I have been interested in so far is the navigation which I will highlight below.

Adjust iTerm keybindings – As I mentioned, I am used to using Linux keybinding so a natural fit for my purposes is the option key.  The first step is to disable the custom binding in the iTerm preferences.  To do this, click iTerm -> Preferences -> Profiles -> Keys and find the binding for option left arrow and option right arrow and remove them from the default profile.

Next, add the following to your global key bindings, iTerm -> Preferences -> Keys.





Move left one word

  • Keyboard shortcut: ??
  • Action: Send Escape Sequence
  • Escape: b

Move right one word

  • Keyboard shortcut: ??
  • Action: Send Escape Sequence
  • Escape: f

Finally, it is also worth pointing out that I use zsh for my default shell.  There are some really nice additions that zsh offers over vanilla bash.  I recently ran across this blog post which has some awesome tips.  I have also written about switching to zsh here.  Anyway, here is the lis.  It will grow as I find more tips.

Basic navigation:

  • Ctrl-left/right arrow – Jump between words quickly.
  • Opt-left/right arrow – Custom iTerm binding for jumping between words quickly.
  • Alt-left/right arrow – Linux only.  Jump between words quickly.
  • Esc-b/f – Mac OS.  Similar to arrow keys, move between words quickly.
  • Alt-b – Linux only.  Jump back one word.  Handy with other hotkeys overridden.
  • Ctrl-a – Jump to the beginning of a line (doesn’t work with tmux mappings).
  • Ctrl-e – Jump to the end of a line.
  • End – SImilar to ctrl-e this will send your cursor to the end of the line.
  • Home – Similar to End, except jumps to the beginning of the line.

Intermediate navigation:

  • Ctrl-u – Copy entire command to clipboard.
  • Ctrl-y – Paste previously copied ctrl-u command in to the terminal.
  • Ctrl-w – Cut a word to the left of the cursor.
  • Alt-d – Cut after word after the cursor position

Advanced use:

  • Ctrl-x Ctrl-e – Zsh command.  Edit the current command in your $EDITOR, which for me is vim
  • Ctrl-r – Everybody hopefully should know this one.  It is basically recursive search history
  • Ctrl-k – Erase everything after the current cursor position.  Handy for long commands
  • !<command>:p – Print the last command
  • cd … – Zsh command.  This can be easily aliased but will jump up two directories
  • !$ – Quickly access the last argument of the last command.

Zsh tab completion

Tab completion with Zsh is awesome, it’s like bash completion on steroids.  I will attempt to highlight some of my favorite tab completion tricks with Zsh.

Directory shorthand – Say you need to get to a directory that is nested deeply.  You can use the first few characters that will uniquely match to that directory to navigate instead of typing out the whole command.  So for example, cd /u/lo/b will expand out to /usr/local/bin.

command specific history – This one comes in handy all the time.  If you need to grab a command that you don’t use very often you can user Ctrl-r to match the first part of the command and from there you can up arrow to locate the command you typed.

Spelling and case correction – Bash by default can get annoying if you have a long command typed out but somehow managed to typo part of the command.  In zsh this is (sometimes) corrected for you automatically when you <tab> to complete the command.  For example if you are changing dirs in to the ‘Documents’ directory you can type ‘cd ~/doc/’ and the correct location will be expanded for you.

This list will continue to grow as I find more handy shortcuts, hotkeys or generally other useful tips and tricks that I find in my day to day command line work.  I really want to build a similar list for things in Vim but my Vim skills are unfortunately lacking plus there is already some really nice documentation and guidance out there already.  If you are interested in writing up a Vim productivity post I would love to post it.  Likewise, if you have any other nice shortcuts or tips you think are worth mentioning, post them in the comments and I will try to get them added to the list.

Introduction to boot2docker


If you work on a Mac (or Windows) and use Docker then you probably have heard of boot2docker.  If you haven’t heard of it before, boot2docker is basically a super lightweight Linux VM that is designed to run Docker containers.  Unfortunately there is no support (yet) in Mac OS X or Windows kernels for running Docker natively so this lightweight VM must be used as an intermediary layer that allows the host Operating Systems to communicate with the Docker daemon running inside the VM.  This solution really is not that limiting once you get introduced to and become comfortable with boot2docker and how to work around some of the current limitations.

Because Docker itself is such a new piece of software, the ecosystem and surrounding environment is still expanding and growing rapidly.  As such, the tooling has not had a great deal of time to mature.  So with pretty much anything that’s new, especially in the software and Open Source world, there are definitely some nuances and some things to be aware of when working with boot2docker.

That being said, the boot2docker project bridges a gap and does a great job of bringing Docker to an otherwise incompatible platform as well as making it easy to use across platforms, which especially useful for furthering the adoption of Docker among Mac and Windows users.

When getting started with boot2docker, it is important to note that there are a few different things going on under the hood.


The first component is VirtualBox.  If you are familiar with virtual machines, there’s pretty much nothing new here.  It is the underpinning of running the VM and is a common tool for creating and managing VM’s.  One important note here about VBox.  This is currently the key to make volume sharing work with boot2docker to allow a user to pass local directories and files in to containers using its shared folder implementation.  Unfortunately it has been pretty well documented that vboxsf (shared folders) have not great performance when compared to other solutions.  This is something that the boot2docker team is aware of and working on for future reference.  I have a workaround that I will outline below if anyone happens to hit some of these performance issues.

The next component is the VM.  This is a super light weight image based on Tiny Core Linux and the 3.16.4 Linux kernel with AUFS to leverage Docker.  Other than that there is pretty much nothing else to it.  The TCL image is about 27MB and boots up in about 5 seconds, making it very fast, which is nice to get going with quickly.  There are instructions on the boot2docker site for creating custom .iso’s if you are interested as well if you are’t interested in building your own customized TCL.

The final component is called boot2docker-cli, which is normally referred to as the management tool.  This tools does a lot of the magic to get your host talking to the VM with minimal interaction.  It is basically the glue or the duct tape that allows users to pass commands from a local shell in to the container and get Docker to do stuff.


It is pretty dead simple to get boot2docker set up and configured.  You can download everything in one shot from the links on their site or you can install manually on OSX with brew and a few other tools.  I highly recommend the packaged installer, it is very straight forward and easy to follow and there is a good video depiction of the process on the boot2docker site.

If you choose to install everything with brew you can use the following commands as a reference.  Obviously it will be assumed that brew is already installed and set up on your OSX system.  The first step is to install boot2docker.

brew install boot2docker

You might need to install Virtualbox separately using this method, depending on whether or not you already have a good version of Virtualbox to use with boot2docker.

The following commands will assume you are starting from scratch and do not have VBox installed.

brew update
brew tap phinze/homebrew-cask
brew install brew-cask
brew cask install virtualbox

That is pretty much it for installation.


The boot2docker CLI is pretty straight forward to use.  There are a bunch of commands to help users interface with the boot2docker VM from the command line.  The most basic and simple usage to initialize and create a vanilla boot2docker VM can be done with the following command.

boot2docker init

This will pull down the correct image and get the environment set up.  Once the VM has been created (see the tricks sections for a bit of customization) you are ready to bring up the VM.

boot2docker start

This command will simply start up the boot2docker VM and run some behind the scenes  tasks to help make using the VM seamless.  Sometimes you will be asked to set ENV variables here, just go ahead and follow the instructions to add them.

There are a few other nice commands that help you interact with the boot2docker VM.  For example if you are having trouble communicating with the VM you can run the ip command to gather network information.

boot2docker ip

If the VM somehow gets shut off or you cannot access it you can check its status.

boot2docker status

Finally there is a nice help command that serves as a good guide for interacting with the VM in various ways.

boot2docker help

The commands listed in this section will for the most part cover 90% of interaction and usage of the boot2docker VM.   There is a little bit of advanced usage with the cli covered below in the tricks section.


You can actually modify some of the default the behavior of your boot2docker VM by altering some of the underlying boot2docker configurations.  For example, boot2docker will look in $HOME/.boot2docker/profile for any custom settings you may have.  If you want to change any network settings, adjust memory or cpu or a number of settings, you would simply change the profile to reflect the updated changes.

You can also override the defaults when you create your boot2docker VM by passing some arguments in.  If you want to change the memory or disk size by default, you would run something like

boot2docker init --memory=4096 --disksize=60000

Notice the –disksize=60000.  Docker likes to take up a lot of disk space for some of its operations, so if you can afford to, I would very highly recommending that you adjust the default disk size for the VM to avoid any strange running out of disk issues.  Most Macbooks or Windows machines have plenty of extra resources and big disks so usually there isn’t a good reason to not leverage the extra horsepower for your VM.


One very useful command for gathering information about your boot2docker environment is the boot2docker config command.  This command will give you all the basic information about the running config.  This can be very valuable when you are trying to troubleshoot different types of errors.

If you are familiar with boot2docker already you might have noticed that it isn’t a perfect solution and there are some weird quirks and nuances.  For example, if you put your host machine to sleep while the boot2docker VM is still running and then attempt to run things in Docker you may get some quirky results or things just won’t work.  This is due to the time skew that occurs when you put the machine to sleep and wake it up again, you can check the github issue for details.  You can quickly check if the boot2docker VM is out of sync with this command.

date -u; boot2docker ssh date -u

If you notice that the times don’t match up then you know to update your time settings.  The best fix for now that I have found for now is to basically reset the time settings by wrapping the following commands in to a script.

# Fix NTP/Time
boot2docker ssh -- sudo killall -9 ntpd
boot2docker ssh -- sudo ntpclient -s -h
boot2docker ssh -- sudo ntpd -p

For about 95% of the time skew issues you can simply run sudo ntpclient -s -h to take care of the issue.

Another interesting boot2docker oddity is that sometimes you will not be able to connect to the Docker daemon or will sometimes receive other strange errors.  Usually this indicates that the environment variables that get set by boot2docker have disappeared,  if you close your terminal window or something similar for example.  Both of the following errors indicate the issue.

dial unix /var/run/docker.sock: no such file or directory


Cannot connect to the Docker daemon. Is 'docker -d' running on this host?

The solution is to either add the ENV variables back in to the terminal session by hand or just as easily modify your bashrc config file to read the values in when the terminal loads up.  Here are the variables that need to be reset, or appended to your bashrc.

export DOCKER_CERT_PATH=/Users/jmreicha/.boot2docker/certs/boot2docker-vm
export DOCKER_HOST=tcp://

Assuming your boot2docker VM has an address of and a port of 2376 for communication.

Shared folders

This has been my biggest gripe so far with boot2docker as I’m sure it has been for others as well.  Mostly I am upset that vboxsf are horrible and in all fairness the boot2docker people have been awesome getting this far to get things working with vboxsf as of release 1.3.  Another caveat to note if you aren’t aware is that currently, if you pass volumes to docker with “-v”, the directory you share must be located within the “/Users” directory on OSX.  Obviously not a huge issue but something to be aware if you happen to have problems with volume sharing.

The main issue with vboxsf is that it does not do any sort of caching sort of caching so when you are attempting to share a large amount of small files (big git repo’s) or anything that is filesystem read heavy (grunt) performance becomes a factor.  I have been exploring different workarounds because of this limitation but have not found very many that I could convince our developers to use.  Others have had luck by creating a container that runs SMB or have been able to share a host directory in to the boot2docker vm with sshfs but I have not had great success with these options.  If anybody has these working please let me know I’d love to see how to get them working.

The best solution I have come up with so far is using vagrant with a customized version of boot2docker with NFS support enabled, which has very little “hacking” to get working which is nice.  And a good enough selling point for me is the speed increase by using NFS instead of vboxsf, it’s pretty staggering actually.

This is the project that I have been using  Thanks to @yungsang for putting this project together.  Basically it uses a custom vagrant-box based off of the boot2docker iso to accomplish its folder sharing with the awesome customization that Vagrant provides.

To get this workaround to work, grab the vagrantfile from the link provided above and put that in to the location you would like to run Vagrant from.  The magic sauce in the volume sharing is in this line.

onfig.vm.synced_folder ".", "/vagrant", type: "nfs"

Which tells Vagrant to share your current directory in to the boot2docker VM in the /vagrant directory, using NFS.  I would suggest modifying the default CPU and memory as well if your machine is beefy enough.

v.cpus = 4
v.memory = 4096

After you make your adjustments, you just need to spin up the yungsang version of boot2docker and jump in to the VM.

vagrant up
vagrant ssh

From within the VM you can run your docker commands just like you normally would.  Ports get forwarded through to your local machine like magic and everybody is happy.

DevOpsDays Chicago

devopsdays chicago

As a first timer to this event, and first timer to any devopsdays event I’d like to write up a quick summary of the event and write about a few of the key takeaways that I got from the event.  For anybody that isn’t familiar, the devopsdays events are basically 2 day events spread out through the year at different locations around the world.  You can find more information on their site here:

The nice thing about the devopsdays events is that they are small enough that they are very affordable ($100) if you register early.  One unique thing about the events is their format, which I really liked.  Basically the first half of the day is split up in to talks given by various leaders in the industry followed by “Ignite” talks which are very brief but informative talks on a certain subject, followed by “open spaces”, which are pretty much open group discussions about topics suggested by event participants.  I spoke to a number of individuals that enjoyed the open spaces, even though they didn’t like all of the subjects covered in the talks.  So I thought there was a very nice balance to the format of the conference and how everything was laid out.

I noticed that a number of the talks focused on broad cultural topics as well as a few technical subjects as well.  Even if you don’t like the format or topics you will more than likely at least learn a few things from speakers or participants that will help you moving forward in your career.  Obviously you will get more out of a conference if you are more involved so go out of your way to introduce yourself and try to talk to as many people as you can.  The hallway tracks are really good to introduce yourself and to meet people.

So much to learn

One thing that really stood out to me was how different the composition and background of attendees really was.  I met people from gigantic organizations all the way down to small startup companies and basically everything in between.  The balance and mixture of attendees was really cool to see and it was great to get some different perspective on different topics.

Another fact that really stood out to me was that the topics covered were really well balanced, although some may disagree.  I thought heading in to the conference that most of the talks were going to be super technical in nature but it turned out a lot these talks revolved more around the concepts and ideas that sort of drive the DevOps movement rather than just tools that are associated with DevOps.

One massive takeaway that I got from the conference was that DevOps is really just a buzzword.  The definition that I Have of DevOps at my organization may be totally different than somebody else’s definition at a different company.  What is important is that even though there will be differences in implementation at different scales, a lot of the underlying concepts and ideas will be similar and can be used to drive change and improve processes as well as efficiency.

DevOps is really not just about a specific tool or set of tools you may use to get something accomplished, it is more complicated than that.  DevOps is about solving a problem or set of problems first and foremost, the tooling to do these tasks is secondary.  Before this event I had these two distinguishing traits of DevOps backwards, I thought I could drive change with tools, but now I understand that it is much more important to drive the change of culture first and then to retool you environment once you have the buy in to do so.

Talk to people

One of the more underrated aspects of this conference (and any conference for that matter) is the amount of knowledge you can pick up from the hallway track.  The hallway track is basically just a way to talk to people that you may or may not have met yet who are doing interesting work or have solved problems that you are trying to solve.  I ran in to a few people who were working on some interesting challenges *cough* docker *cough* in the hallway track and I really got a chance for the first time to see what others are doing with Docker which I thought was really cool.

Open spaces were another nice way to get people to intermingle.  The open spaces allowed people working on similar issues to put heads together to discuss specific topics that attendees either found interesting or were actively working on.  A lot of good discussion occurred in these open spaces and a good amount of knowledge was spread around.


DevOps is not one thing.  It is not a set of tools but rather a shift in thinking and therefore involves various cultural aspects, which can get very complicated.  I think in the years to come, as DevOps evolves, a lot more of these aspects will become much more clear and will hopefully make it easier people to get involved in embracing the changes that come along with the DevOps mentality.

Current thought leaders in the DevOps space (many of them in attendance at devopsdays Chichago) are doing a great job of moving the discussion forward and there are some awesome discussions at the devopsdays events.  Podcasts like Arrested DevOps, The Ship Show and DevOps Cafe are definitely creating a lot of good discussion around the subject as well.  Judging from my observations from the event, it seems there is still a lot of work to be done before DevOps becomes more common and mainstream.

Patching CVE-6271 (shellshock) with Chef

If you haven’t heard the news yet, a recently disclosed vulnerability has been released that exploits environmental variables in bash.  This has some far reaching implications because bash is so widespread and runs on many different types of devices, for example network gear, routers, switches, firewalls, etc.  If that doesn’t scare you then you probably don’t need to finish reading this article.  For more information you can check out this article that helped to break the story.

I have been seeing a lot “OMG the world is on fire, patch patch patch!” posts and sentiment surrounding this recently disclosed vulnerability, but basically have not seen anybody taking the time to explain how to patch and fix this issue.  It is not a difficult fix but it might not be obvious to the more casual user or those who do not have a sysadmin or security background.


Use the following commands to search through your installed packages for the correct package release.  You can check the Ubuntu USN for versions.

dpkg -l | grep '^ii' or
dpkg-query --show bash

If you are on Ubuntu 12.04 you will need update to the following version:

bash    4.2-2ubuntu2.3

If you are on Ubuntu 13.10, and have this package (or below), you are vulnerable.  Update to 14.04!

 bash 4.2-5ubuntu3

If you are on Ubuntu 14.04, be sure to update to the most recently patched patch.

bash 4.3-7ubuntu1.3

Luckily, the update process is pretty straight forward.

apt-get update
apt-get --only-upgrade install bash

If you have the luxury of managing your environment with some sort of automation or configuration management tool (get this in place if you don’t have it already!) then this process can be managed quite efficiently.

It is easy to check if a server that is being managed by Chef has the vulnerability by using knife search:

knife search node 'bash_shellshock_vulnerable:true'

From here you could createa a recipe to patch the servers or fix each one by hand.  Another cool trick is that you can blast out the update to Debian based servers with the following command:

knife ssh 'platform_family:debian' 'sudo apt-get update; sudo apt-get install -y bash'; knife ssh 'platform_family:redhat' 'sudo yum -y install bash'

This will iterate over every server in your Chef server environment that is in the Debain family (including Ubuntu) or RHEL family (including CentOS) and update the server packages so that the latest patched bash version gets pulled down and then gets updated to the latest version.

You may need to tweak the syntax a little, -x to override the ssh user and -i to feed an identity file.  This is so much faster than manually installing the update on all your servers or even fiddling around with a tool like Fabric, which is still better than nothing.

One caveat to note:  If you are not on an LTS version of Ubuntu, you will need to upgrade your server(s) first to an LTS, either 12.04 or 14.04 to qualify for this patch.  Ubuntu 13.10 went out of support in August which was about a month ago as per the time of this writing so you will want to get your OS up date.

One more thing:  The early patches to address this vulnerability did not entirely fix the issue, so make sure that you have the correct patch installed.  If you patched right away there is a good chance you may still be vulnerable, so simply rerun your knife ssh command to reapply the newest patch, now that the dust is beginning to settle.

Outside of this vulnerability, it is a good idea to get your OS on an Ubuntu LTS version anyway to continue receiving critical updates for software as well as security patches for a longer duration than the normal, 6 month release cycle of the server distribution.

Analyzing cloud costs

Knowing about and controlling the costs of a cloud environment is not only good to know how to do as an admin/engineer, it also greatly helps others inside your organization.  Knowing your environment and cost overhead also makes you (or your team) look better when you can pinpoint bottlenecks, as well as anomalies in your environment, and create solutions to mitigating costs or otherwise track cloud resource utilization.  Plus, it can even get you some extra credit.

So with this in mind, I’d like to talk about a few strategies and tools I have been experimenting with to help road map and accurately model different costs and utilization for different workloads spread out accross an AWS environment.


The first tool I’d like to mention is ICE and is probably my favorite tool. It is a tool developed by Netflix and analyzes costs across your AWS infrastructure.  It gives you nice graphs and advanced breakdowns of prices, including spot pricing vs on demand and many other permutations across your AWS infrastructure.

This is the best explanation I can find, pulled right from their github page:

The ability to trend usage patterns on a global scale, yet decompose them down to a region, availability zone, or service team provides incredible flexibility. Ice allows us to quantify our AWS footprint and to make educated decisions regarding reservation purchases and reallocation of resources.

Amazon ICE

It has a nice interface and some slick filtering, so breaking things down on a region by region level becomes easy, which is otherwise not the case for the other tools.  This tool is also great for spotting trends and anomalies in your environment which can sometimes go undetected if not viewed in the correct context.

The downside is the overhead associated with getting this up and running bu there is a Chef cookbook that will pretty much do the installation for you, if you are comfortable with Chef.  You will need to override some attributes but otherwise it is pretty straight forward.  If you need assistance let me know and I’d be glad to walk you through getting it set up.

AWS Calculator

This is a handy tool to help ballpark and model various costs for AWS services.  One disappointing discovery of this tool is that it doesn’t help model spot instance prices.

AWS calculator

This is great for mocking out what the TCO of a server or group of servers might look like.  It is also good for getting a general feel for what different server costs will be for a certain number of months and/or years.

Be sure to check this out to help stay current on the most recent news because AWS moves quickly with seemingly constant updates and have been dropping prices steadily over the past 3 years.  Especially with the increased competition from Microsoft (Azure) and Google (Google Cloud), AWS seems to be constantly slashing prices and adding new improvement and features to their product.

AWS Billing and Cost Management

This one is pretty self explanatory.  It is built right in to AWS and as such, it can be a very powerful tool that can easily be overlooked.  It offers a variety of detailed information about costs and billing.  It offers some nice graphs and charts for trend spotting and can be exported for analysis, which is also nice (even though I haven’t got that far yet).

The major downside (in my opinion) is that you can’t get the granular price breakdowns that are available with a tool like ICE.  For example, there isn’t an easy way to find a price comparison breakdown for cost per region or other more detailed information.

Trusted Advisor

This tool is great and is free for basic usage.  This offering from AWS is really nice for helping to find and optimize settings according to a number of good practice recommendations created by Amazon.  Not only does it give you some really nice price breakdowns but it also reports things like security and performance which can be equally useful.  Use this often to tighten up areas of your infrastructure and to optimize costs.

One down for this one is that to unlock all of the features and functionality you need to upgrade to the enterprise version which is obviously more expensive.

AWS ELK Billing

I just found out about this one but it looks like it might be a very nice solution, leveraging the Logstash + Kibana stack.  I have written a post about getting started with the ELK stack so it shouldn’t be difficult at all to begin playing around with this solution if you are interested.

If you get this tool up and working I would love to hear about it.

Cost saving tips

I have compiled a list of simple yet powerful tips to help control costs in AWS.  Ideally a combination of all of these tips would be used to help control costs.

  • Upgrade server and service instance generations as often as possible for automatic improved performance and reduced price.  For example gen 1 to gen 3, ->
  • Try to size servers correctly by keeping them busy.  Servers that are running but aren’t doing anything are essentially wasting money.  Either run them according to time of day or bump up the amount of utilization per box, either by downsizing the server or upping the workload.
  • On that note, size servers correctly according to workload.  For example a workload that demands CPU cylces should not be deployed as a memory optimized server.
  • Adopt on demand instances and utilize them early on.  On demand prices are significantly lower than standard prices.  Just be careful because your on demand instances can disappear.
  • In the same ilk of on demand instances, use reserved instances.  These instance types can significantly reduce prices, and have the advantage that they won’t disappear so long running servers and services benefit from this type of cost control.
  • Set up granular billing as early as possible.  Create and optimize alerts based on expected usage for tighter control of costs.  It’s better to start off knowing and controlling environment costs sooner than later.
  • Delete unused EBS volumes.  Servers and volumes can come and go, but often times EBS volumes can become orphaned and essentially no good.  Therefore it is a good idea to clean up unused EBS volumes whenever you can.  Of course this process can and should be automated.


Managing cost and optimizing your cloud infrastructure really could be considered its own discipline in some regards.  Environments can become complex quite quickly with instances, services and resources spinning up and down as well as dynamically growing up and down to accommodate workloads as well as ever evolving environments can lead to what some call “Cloud Sprawl”.

The combination of the tools and cost savings tips mentioned above can be a real lifesaver when you are looking to squeeze out the most bang for your buck out of your cloud environment.  It can also lead to a much more solid understanding of all the moving pieces in your environment and can help determine exactly is going on at any given time, which is especially useful for DevOps admins and engineers.

If you have any other cool tips or tips for controlling AWS costs or other cloud environment costs let me know, I’ll be sure to add them here!